Bipolar Disorder

May 18, 2024
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There are times when you are ecstatic, and your joy knows no bounds. The next moment you are unreasonably irritable, angry, and frustrated. Your mood swings affect your behavior, thought process, sleep, energy levels, and power of judgment. The condition that causes extreme mood swings – episodes of extremely elevated mood (mania/ hypomania) or emotionally low (depression) is known as Bipolar disorder. 

There are different types of bipolar and related disorders. 

  • Bipolar I disorder is defined by manic episodes that last at least a week or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Depressive episodes, which typically last at least two weeks, can also occur. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depressive symptoms and manic symptoms simultaneously) are also possible. 
  • Bipolar II disorder is defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes. It is different from the full-blown manic episodes typical of Bipolar I disorder. 

Cyclothymic disorderalso Cyclothymiais defined by periods of hypomanic symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least two years (one year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for hypomanic and depressive episodes. 

Other typesareusually induced by certain drugs or alcohol or due to a medical condition, such as Cushing's disease, multiple sclerosis, or stroke. 


  • Ecstatic and Enthusiastic  
  • Swings from a joyful mood to being irritable, angry, and hostile
  • Restless
  • Poor concentration, Distracted and Irritated  
  • Increased energy and less need for sleep 
  • High sex drive 
  • Making grand and unattainable plans
  • Tendency to show poor judgment, such as deciding to quit a job
  • Investing huge amounts of money or risky behaviour  
  • Drug and alcohol abuse 
  • Increased impulsivity 

Causes and Reasons  

It is difficult to state the exact reasons that cause Bipolar disorder. Genetics, Changes in the brain, factors like stress, and major life changes can lead to the condition. 


It is a lifelong condition. Your symptoms can be managed by following a treatment plan. Bipolar disorder is treated with medications and psychological counseling. A good treatment program can stabilize severe moods and provide effective symptom relief. Continued treatment has been proven more effective in preventing relapses. 

Consult your doctor for a detailed medical examination and treatment. 

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